What is PMS?

By Dr. Vijay Bathina | Published: January 28th, 2016

Featured Video Play Icon

Premenstrual syndrome or PMS is the name given to a collection of physical and emotional symptoms that can occur in the two weeks before you have your period.

Nearly all women have some premenstrual symptoms. Each woman’s symptoms are different but the most common symptoms include:

  • Mood Swings

  • Feeling Depressed, Irritable or Bad-Tempered
Feeling Upset, Anxious or emotional

  • Tiredness or Trouble Sleeping

  • Headaches
Changes in Appetite and Food Cravings
Feeling clumsy
  • Fluid Retention or Feeling Bloated
 Changes to Skin or Hair
 Having Sore or Tender Breasts.

What is the cause of PMS?

The exact cause of PMS is not known. One or more factors may be involved including:

Changes in hormone levels

The levels of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone vary naturally during a woman’s menstrual cycle. Hence the symptoms of PMS are likely to be related to the cyclical fluctuation of these hormones.

Weight and exercise

Research has shown that the likelihood of PMS is increased in women who are obese.


Excess of foods with a high salt content, alcohol and caffeinated drinks have been shown to affect mood and energy levels.


About the author

Dr. Vijay Bathina

Dr.Vijay Bathina (Physiotherapist) MPT, MIAP, PGDHHM, MMTFI Has over 8 years of experience in Spine Rehab, Gait Analysis & Rehabilitation, Musculo-Skeletal Injury Assessment & Exercise Prescription, Sports Injury Rehabilitation & Sport Endurance Training, Stroke Rehabilitation & Functional Training, and Manual Therapy. Currently heading the Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation at Citizens Hospitals, Hyderabad, he has worked with Medanta, Columbia Asia, and Care hospitals.